Main Article Content
The article explores the main directions of the development of space metallurgy: the processes of cleaning metals from unwanted impurities, the production of metals and alloys, heat treatment of metals, casting, coating on the surface of products, etc.; it is noted that many terms in the field of space metallurgy do not have an unambiguous definition, ways to solve a number of problems are debatable, there is no consensus on the effect of weightlessness, vacuum, high temperatures on the physicochemical characteristics of substances, there is no unified approach to identifying the optimal modes of technological application metals and alloys; the purpose of the article is to study innovative methods for obtaining metals in space, to develop optimal modes for the production and use of metals and alloys; research tasks were set: to study the goals, methods, new directions in the development of space metallurgy; it is emphasized that space metallurgy deals with obtaining metals and alloys with improved properties by changing their composition and structure; most of these processes include phase transitions to liquid or gaseous states, for which the influence of the magnitude of body forces on the composition and structure of the final material can be significant; the transfer of metallurgical processes into space opens up new possibilities for the production of materials with improved characteristics that cannot be obtained on Earth; space metallurgy makes it possible to produce rare crystals of a filamentous structure of great length and superstrength; as an example, the article describes the "Universal Furnace" experiment, during which the possibility of obtaining homogeneous germanium single crystals containing silicon and antimony impurities was studied; also, under weightless conditions, it became possible to obtain foam metals, which are very light, but at the same time their strength is several times higher than the strength of traditional metal; a promising area of space metallurgy is the development of asteroids with the subsequent organization of effective work on their development; another area of space metallurgy is the development of processes for mounting, assembling, welding, soldering, repairing metal structures in orbit; further, a number of measures are proposed for the development of the space industry, special attention is paid to the ergonomics of new materials, which should be light, reduce the mass of aerospace vehicles by more than half; promising areas for the development of space metallurgy are: the study of the influence of space factors on the physical and chemical processes of substances in order to identify the optimal modes of technological application of metals and alloys, the transition from individual experiments to the widespread use of specialized on-board facilities to obtain new innovative materials, the development of theoretical studies and their application in the practice of space metallurgy; the ultimate goal of the development of space metallurgy is to turn it into an industry with high technical and economic efficiency.
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